Personal tools
You are here: Home VivaCity2020 Toolkit All Tools

All Tools

Sustainability Issue One - Urban Design Decision-Making


Sustainability Issue Two - Generation of Land Use Diversity

Sustainability Issue Three - Secure Urban Environments By Design

Sustainability Issue Four - Environmental Quality

Sustainability Issue Five - Evolution of Land Use Diversity

Sustainability Issue Six - Community Pattern Book For Housing

Sustainability Issue Seven - Public Conveniences

Sustainability Issue Eight - ICT Support Solutions


Related Tools


WP1HouseLogoSustainability Issue One - Urban Design Decision-Making

The case studies discuss three different urban development projects in UK cities: an urban block in Clerkenwell, London; the mixed-use urban Devonshire Quarter in Sheffield, and; a 2,200-hectare site in Central Salford, Greater Manchester. Through the collection of data about these projects, three different urban design decision-making processes were mapped, showing the stages of each process, who the decision-makers were, what tools were used in decision-making and how and where sustainability was considered throughout the process stages.

The Urban Design Decision-Making Process

This process builds on the work from the case studies, a review of the relevant literature, expert panel workshops and internships with various local authorities. It presents a new way of thinking about urban design decision-making that incorporates sustainability into each stage of the process. This ensures that decision-makers are more holistically considering and making tradeoffs about a host of sustainability issues, from the idea stage until an urban development project begins to decline.

Back to top ^^ 

WP2HouseLogoSustainability Issue Two - Generation of Land Use Diversity

Bibliographic Review

Researchers from Sustainability Issue Two compiled an extensive collection of references used throughout the VivaCity2020 Project. Organised by theme and including books, websites, journals and conferences, the Bibliographic Review is a valuable resource to those interested in the work conducted by Sustainability Issue Two.

Case Studies: Generation of Land Use Diversity

Extensive case studies were conducted in Clerkenwell, Manchester and Sheffield looking into the generation of land use diversity. Encompassed within these case studies can also be found information about the results of the Business and Households questionnaires.

Diversity and the Urban Design Decision-Making Process

The Decision-Making Process has developed a set of stages and tasks surrounding an urban development project. Sustainability Issue Two is not confined to a single development or urban design area scale. It also addresses the design of cities as a whole as well as in component parts. The planning stages and scales at which this operates are mapped onto the urban design decision-making process model.

This detailed presentation looks into the Space Syntax Theory of Centre Formation, examining the formation of city centres. The presentation outlines centre expansion and variety, and compares different high streets using graphical representation and statistical analysis.

Spatial Data Analysis and Tool

A spatial data-based tool to map economic, social and land use diversity has been developed using the pilot Clerkenwell area test bed. Detailed analysis was undertaken to map and model the case study area using primary and secondary digital data in GIS format.

Understanding Business and Resident Values

Household Surveys: A questionnaire survey assessed liveability and living situation in terms of location, building mix and layout, along with the aspects that residents liked or disliked about their neighbourhood. Business Surveys: This survey sought to assess the benefits of locating within mixed use and diverse environments from the perspective of trade, supply chain links and employment.

Back to top ^^

WP3HouseLogoSustainability Issue Three - Secure Urban Environments By Design

This detailed presentation looks at residential burglary and street robbery the value of personal and property security, along with an outline of the i-VALUL project.

VivaCity2020 looked at the impact of the regeneration of Hulme, near Manchester, assessing whether Hulme has become and safer and more sustainable environment in which to live. Changes in crime rates, housing and other sustainability objectives have been taken into account.

Researchers from VivaCity2020 Sustainability Issue Three conducted a literature review and two case studies, Manchester and Sheffield. The researched looked in detail into the night-time economy and crime in these cities and in the literature and recorded their findings.

Retail, Shopping and Crime Case Studies

Researchers from VivaCity2020 Sustainability Issue Three conducted two case studies, Manchester and Sheffield. The researched looked in detail into retail and crime in these cities and in the literature and recorded their findings.

Back to top ^^

WP4HouseLogoSustainability Issue Four - Environmental Quality

Designing Environmental Quality Into City Centre Living Case Studies

This tool is not yet available on the website. Please contact Ben Croxford for more information about this research.

Environmental Quality: Case Study Methodologies

This tool is not yet available on the website. Please contact Ben Croxford for more information about this research.

Back to top ^^ 

WP5HouseLogoSustainability Issue Five - Evolution of Land Use Diversity

Space Syntax Analysis: The Relationship Between Street Layout and Residential Property Value

This detailed presentation uses Space Syntax to answer the question: Are there spatial correlates to residential property values? Council Tax Bandings were investigated, along with locational variables, age, property size and ambient density.


Back to top ^^


WP6HouseLogoSustainability Issue Six - Community Pattern Book For Housing

Thirty residential areas have been selected from three major city centres, London (Clerkenwell), Manchester (Hulme) and Sheffield (Devonshire Quarter), to serve as case studies of the various types of housing that have been built in the UK between the 1820s and the present day.

A questionnaire-based postal survey, based on the British government's  'liveability agenda' that has been developed in recent years to capture the residential satisfaction of an area (ODPM, 2003), was distributed to all the households living in twenty-nine out of the thirty housing developments in the sample. It comprised twenty-four questions, divided into four themes: upkeep and management of public space and buildings, road traffic and transport-related issues, abandonment or non-residential use of domestic property and antisocial behaviour.

Quantitative data were gathered for all thirty housing schemes, including the figure/ground ratio of the buildings and open spaces, the extent and type of non-residential uses, the public or private designation of any open spaces, the local street hierarchy and the type, height, transparency and permeability of the building facades and secondary boundaries such as walls, hedges or railings.

WP7HouseLogoSustainability Issue Seven - Public Conveniences

Useful for Urban Design Professionals, the Inclusive Toilet Hierarchy has been able to identify a hierarchy of provision in respect of away from home toilets. This can be used to inform debates about the number and types of accessible toilet cubicles that should be provided in any particular context.

The toilet audit tool was developed in collaboration with a National Registered Access Auditor to collect data on the accessible provision that was currently available. The tool can be used by urban design professionals, local authorities and the community to ensure that toilet provision is as accessible as possible

Sustainability Issue Seven collected a wealth of information concerning public toilet provision in urban areas around the UK, concentrating on accessibility for people with special requirements regarding toilet use.

By looking at the range of users’ needs, VivaCity2020 were able to identify a number of common requirements linked by different disabilities and needs. This led to a selection of design templates for accessible and inclusive toilets which built on recommendations from a wide range of British Standards.

Personas are a tool that the research group has developed to communicate users’ needs to the professionals involved in the design and management of away from home toilets. Each persona is an ‘archetypal user’ that has been created in collaboration with user groups involved in the research.

Surveys are a useful way to find out what people think about current public toilet provision. They may also indicate how strongly people feel about how provision meets, or fails to meet, the local community’s needs.  VivaCity2020 provides survey guidelines, an example survey and survey results.

Back to top ^^

WP8HouseLogoSustainability Issue Eight - ICT Support Solutions

ICT Support Tools

This tool is not yet available on the website. Please contact Gassan Aouad or Terrence Fernando for more information about this research.

Back to top ^^


VivaCity2020 worked closely with two artists in residence on the project, Helen Bendon and Jessica Thom. These artists provided an alternative insight into the issues of sustainability and the urban experience of city users and residents. Bendon and Thom also provided a cultural and creative perspective to our understanding of being in a city.

Urban Form: Planning Policy Guidance and Case Studies

This tool is not yet available on the website. Please contact Graeme Evans or Alan Penn for more information about this research.

Back to top ^^

ToolsHouseRelated Tools

Complex Built Environment Systems (external link)

The Complex Built Environment Systems group (CBES) is primarily interested in developing solutions to the practical problems of designing, constructing and managing appropriate environments within and around buildings. CBES aims to tackle the following three main issues:
How to design, maintain and operate the built environment while minimising the emissions of greenhouse gases.
How to adapt the environment, fabric and services of existing and new buildings to climate change.
How to improve the environment in and around buildings to provide better health, comfort, security and productivity.

An alliance of public bodies who believe everyone should benefit from the arts, sport, public space, heritage, museums, libraries and archives, the built environment and the creative industries, regardless of where they live. The Toolkit will be launched Summer 2008.

Design Against Crime (external link)

Design Against Crime is a programme of research and policy initiatives that aims to improve design's effectiveness in reducing crime. Our web site gives you access to detailed research, case studies, educational materials, information for designers and a showcase of the best design against crime. Whether you are learning design at school, college or university, commissioning design for industry and commerce, working as a professional designer or involved in crime reduction – you will find a wealth of useful and useable information here.

I’DGO - Inclusive Design for Getting Outdoors - is a research consortium focused on ways to improve the design of the outdoor environment to enhance older people's quality of life. In focusing on inclusive design and the changing needs of older people, the consortium also addresses issues that are relevant to a wider range of people in society

Live Work Design (external link)

Live Work Network is a membership organisation for everyone with an interest in providing live/work units - properties that combine workplace and home. They are the UK's sole information service o­n live/work.

Mixed-Use Design VS CPTED

This tool is not yet available on this website. Please contact Graeme Evans for more information about this research.

Space Syntax (external link)

Space Syntax provides a unique, evidence based approach to the planning and design of buildings and cities. Our focus is the creation of environments which are socially and economically successful. We use world-leading technologies to generate knowledge and make proposals.Our evidence and ideas empower people and help them make key decisions about the world around them.

Street Design Index (external link via AUNTSUE)

The Street Design Index widens the scope of urban design to perceptual factors such as fear of crime, natural surveillance, key amenities such as WCs, furniture, signage and legibility, and uses a comprehensive mapping of neighbourhoods, communities and routes.

UrbanBuzz (external link)

UrbanBuzz: Building Sustainable Communities is a 2 year programme that aims to develop new ways of delivering genuinely sustainable forms of development and community in London and the wider Southeast region. UrbanBuzz creates a network of professionals and practitioners at every major link in the supply chain and integrates these people with leading edge academics. They work together to identify and work on live development projects. Here they bring evidence-based and participative processes and new knowledge to develop sustainable communities. By working together to solve shared problems on projects not only are academic disciplinary divisions bridged, but so too is organisational fragmentation in the urban supply network. Ultimately successful networks and projects build belief that sustainable communities are possible.

Back to top ^^


If you or your project have a Tool or document which you would like to see listed within the VivaCity Toolkit, please complete this form (Microsoft Word Document, 31kb) and email it with associated files to

Document Actions